According to several sources, the Phoenicians migrated to Byblos, their first city, from what is now Bahrain, but archaeologists say there is no evidence of settlements anywhere near that early. They say they are Syrians who first settled in a city north of Byblos, then Byblos, then Tyre and Sidon. Which is correct?

The key to that research is circumcision.

According to the Egyptians who fought against a coalition of “sea peoples”, the Phoenicians were circumcised, but the Philistines were not. Also according to both legends and modern DNA testing, the Phoenicians and the Philistines are from the same blood line. They are.

The blood line of the Phoenicians goes back to the pastures of the land settled by the ancient descendant of Shem named Aram. That leads us to Abraham and the covenant that brought circumcision into the social order.

First, let’s establish the relationships so that we know which of the three branches coming from Noah is associated with which person. The first born to the first born line was Noah, Shem, Salah, Eber, Peleg, Reu, Serug, Nahor, Terah, Abraham, the tenth generation after the flood.

Aram was the son of Shem who had settled in the pastures west of the Euphrates and east of the Mediterranean Sea. He was among the first generation after the flood and related to Abraham through Shem.

When Abraham sent Eliezer to bring a wife for Isaac, he specifically ordered him not to choose one of the women from the area in which they were living. That area, along the sea coast, had been settled by the descendants of Canaan, a first generation son of Ham. The importance of that relationship is not directly stated in the highly condensed history we call the Bible. For now, let’s just recognize that children were born to the three sons of Noah after the great flood. Ham married his daughters to the sons of Japheth, and Japheth married his sons to the daughters of Ham. Shem married his sons to his own daughters in order to maintain the purity of the line of kingship over the earth, and instructed his descendants not to inter-marry with either of his brother’s descendants.

Nimrod, also known as Gilgamesh, was talked into building the tower that caused such chaos by his father and his father’s friends. The people had not been scattered at that time, but were scattered as a result of this incident. That scattering was done in an orderly way. First, Noah sent Peleg – the name translates “map-maker” – to map the entire earth because new lands had risen and old ones sunk during the great flood. Peleg took two years, and did the job with the help of the giants who were still living above-ground at the time (they were sent into the caverns of the earth shortly after this). The giants had both submarines and flying machines, as described in the Mahabarata of India, so the height of the mountains and depth of the oceans was available to them. They were so detailed and precise that even the Chatham Islands off the coast of New Zealand and the Heard and McDonald Islands just north of Antarctica were given place.

The entire earth was sectioned off into three parts, then those parts were divided and sub-divided sufficiently to provide each living male over the age of puberty with a piece of land to go to and inhabit. Abraham, being 15 years of age and considered an adult in those days, was a participant in the drawing of the lots for the land. He drew the area we call Israel today. Eber drew a lot to the east, the area we call Syria today.

Ham drew Africa. Canaan drew the area we call the Sahara Desert today, but which was the wheat basket of the world at one time.

After the drawing of the lots for land, the different groups packed up and headed for their new homes.

Canaan was following the coast of the Mediterranean Sea to get to his parcel, but saw the land that Abraham had drawn and, knowing that Abraham was too young to defend it, settled there despite the oath that whoever took the land of another person would be rooted out and destroyed from being a branch of the family. The only choice Abraham had was to wait until he was strong enough to claim his lot, or until Canaan was destroyed out of it. He stayed with Shem and learned all of the arts and sciences known in those days until he was 49 years old, then he went to Terah’s home and was inducted into the army of Nimrod, under whom Terah was the chief prince, chief priest, and commander of all Nimrod’s military. He was given a force of 300 fighting men, 12 captains and 4 commanders, along with two sons of Nimrod, Eliezer the king of Damascus and Ino the trained scribe.

Abraham held this position as the leader of a quick-strike dromedery camel unit for 20 years, at which time there was some event that put him at odds with Nimrod, who gave orders that he be killed. Eliezer heard about it and warned Abraham to flee, which he did, hiding out in the home of Noah for several months until the searchers gave up and went back to the region of Babylon, to Nimrod.

Terah went up to visit Abraham secretly, and Abraham convinced him that his own life was in danger because of Nimrod’s intent to kill Abraham. Both Noah and Shem agreed, and Terah decided the best course of action was to resign his position with Nimrod and move his household out of the territory under Nimrod’s control. This was the precipitating cause of the move to the trading center of Haran, northwest of Babylon and just outside of Nimrod’s territory. Abraham was 70 years old when the move took place, and went with his father and all the family and slaves associated with his household, including Abraham’s first wife from the area of Susa and their nine children.

Two years later, when Abraham was 72, the giant Marduk rebelled against the legitimate king of the giants and began harassing the northern territories in an attempt to usurp the giant kingship. Nimrod got in touch with Terah and re-activated Abraham’s quick-strike force, assigning them to the area that is now a black dot on Israel’s map, which is identified in the ancient literature as the airport for the flying machines of the giants. There were still some operational aircraft in those days, but the fleet was aging and decreasing in numbers quickly. Abraham departed for that location, taking only Sarai and Lot as members of his family, and leaving Susanna and the children in the care of Terah. He never saw them again. There are conflicting accounts of their demise, the most probable one being an attack on Haran that killed the whole family along with the majority of the population of the city. What is known is Abraham’s all-consuming response to El, “What will you give me, seeing I have no children?”

More background. In the beginning, from the days of Adam before the great flood, it was the practice for each man to take three wives in his life-time. The first wife, in Abraham’s case it was Susanna (the woman from the kingdom of Susa) was his first wife with the expectation that she would provide children to her husband. The unwritten law was that a man ceased conjugal relations with his wife as soon as her pregnancy became known, and did not resume them until the child she bore was weaned. The second wife was taken about the same time, or any time during the early years of the man, and given a medicine that caused her to be sterile, usually for the rest of her life, but some few had children in their later years, such as Hannah, Zillah (wife of Enoch), and Sarai after she was given drugs that reversed her chemical sterilization in the courts of the kings of both Egypt and Abimelech. These secondary wives were allowed to travel with their soldier-husbands on long deployments since there would be no children in the camp in the event of an emergency evacuation, and to prepare the food and nurse the wounded. Slaves were brought along to wash the laundry, chop firewood and haul water.

It was during this deployment that Nimrod was defeated by Chedorlaomer and became a vassel to him, causing his former subjects to start calling him Amarpal, the American slang equivalent of “loser”.

That put Abraham out of a job and short of a supply line, leaving him, his entire camp, and their animals to fend for themselves out in an unpredictable grassland. Abraham’s response was to become a herder of sheep and dromedary camels that brought a good price at market. Abraham had also learned lapidary while studying under Shem. One of the requirements of the education was the learning of a trade that would support a large household with hired servants and slaves. Abraham chose the study of precious and semi-precious stones, their cutting for jewelry and their baking with herbs to make medical powders that reversed mineral-based deficiency diseases, a skill still alive in India in the 1950s.

Abraham is also credited with inventing the seed drill placed on the early model plows, so he knew enough about farming to plant grain crops for his people and animals, knowledge that he passed on to Isaac and was mentioned as being done while in the land of King Abimelech. Abraham and his camp not only survived, they thrived under the mutual military assistance agreements with the various kings in the land where he pastured his flocks and herds.

It was during this time that he learned of the death of his family in Haran, causing such grief that El, the giant who ruled that land, became concerned for him and came to him in a dream with a covenant and a promise that he would not die childless.

“(Gen 17 UKJV) {1} And when Abram was ninety-nine years old, the Self-Existent appeared to Abram, and said to him,
“I am the power of the mountains; walk before me, and be perfect; {2} and I will make My covenant between Me and you, and will increase you extremely.”
{3} And Abram fell on his face; and the majesties talked with him, saying,
{4} “As for Me, hay, My covenant is with you, and you will be a father of many nations; {5} nor will your name be called Abram any more, but your name will be Abraham; for I have made you a father of many nations; {6} and I will make you extremely fruitful, and I will make nations from you, and kings will come out of you; {7} and I will establish My covenant between Me and you and your son after you in their generations for an ages-lasting covenant, to be the majesties to you, and to your son after you; {8} and I will give to you, and to your son after you, the land in which you are a foreigner, all the land of Canaan, for an ages-lasting possession; and I will be their majesties;”
{9} and the majesties said to Abraham,
“You will keep My covenant, you, and your son after you in their generations; {10} and this is My covenant which you will keep between Me and you and your son after you; every male child among you will be circumcised; {11} and you will circumcise the flesh of your foreskin; and it will be a token of the covenant between Me and you; {12} he who is eight days old will be circumcised among you, every male child in your generations, he who is born in the house, or bought with silver from any foreigner who is not of your son; {13} he who is born in your house, and he who is bought with your silver must be circumcised; and My covenant will be in your flesh for an ages-lasting covenant; {14} and the uncircumcised male child whose flesh of his foreskin is not circumcised, that breath will be cut off from his people; for he has broken My covenant.”

There was no circumcision among humans before this. The sons of Keturah and the sons of Ishmael are also circumcised, but in their thirteenth year, the year that Ishmael was circumcised. But the descendants of Isaac were kept separate from the six sons of Keturah and Ishmael because the inheritance was passed down through Isaac, and that inheritance was great money and land wealth in addition to the responsibility as “King of the earth and friend of the gods (giants)”, which was abrogated when Marduk defeated Enlil, which is another story for another time.

So the Phoenicians, descendants of Abraham’s soldiers and servants, were circumcised, but their Philistines relatives, who were not associated with Abraham’s camp, were not. This was clearly documented by the Egyptians during the war with the Sea People, after which the defeated Philistines (not the Phoenicians) were settled along the coast just north of what is the Suez Canal today, as a result of the invaders bringing their entire families and cattle with them trying to settle in Egypt to escape the famine that was so severe and widespread that there was nothing for either humans or animals to eat in most of the lands from which the Philistines came.

The Philistines people today are a remnant of the Sea People that attacked Egypt and were driven out. Their origin is the islands of the Mediterranean Sea. They are descendants of Ham, who was not black in the early years. All people except the line of Noah had nut-brown skin, deep brown eyes, and straight black hair. Noah and his descendants had cream-colored skin, red hair, and blue eyes, just as Noah’s father and family had inherited from the giants. Proof of that is in the description of king David, who had “white” skin and red hair and beard.

The Phoenicians are descendants of Aram, descendant of Shem, who were originally part of Abraham’s camp, who were displaced when Esau drove off the herds and flocks during Isaac’s advanced age when he was blind and bed-ridden, unable to defend himself or his people, or to lead the camp vigorously as was needed against a man like Esau. With the herds and flocks gone, there was no means of physical support for the several hundred, possibly several thousand men who had been the shepherds and herders, and no food for their families. They did what people normally do when they are hungry. They went looking for food. There was food in the Mediterranean Sea to be had just for casting a net, so they went fishing and survived. The land was all taken by settlers and their kings, so it was necessary for them to keep moving, particularly that many people, looking for a place that was not inhabited that they could claim as their own. Egypt and the Philistines were to the south, so they headed north up the coast, sending advance scouts to locate a place sufficient for their numbers. They settled in uninhabited islands that had good ports and in some areas inland from these.

When the men decided to migrate with their families looking for a place to settle, they took the route that was easiest on the women and children, who were walking for lack of the animals that Esau had taken. Some of them followed the Jordan up to the mountains of Lebanon, then the scouts located a stretch of beach with a small coastal plain that was suitable, so they followed one of the valleys to the coast and up to Gebel and settled there among the cedar trees. There was a little land for grain crops and the ocean provided fish, but they needed an income to buy the articles that were needed but not available in their new area.

This was no group of farmers. They had all the advantages of an advanced military unit, plus the commercial arts training they had received under Abraham and had passed on to their children. Every man, woman and child had at least two skills. The first was the skill of the soldier, then each person had at least one skill that could be used to earn a living, from astronomy to soil culture, and many had several due to the extended time in the fields with the flocks providing the time to learn new skills. Among those skills was boat-building using cedar wood with tongue-and-groove techniques and pine tar for sealing against leaks. They also knew how to fight on those boats if necessary, and how to steer them by the stars using longitude and latitude. Many were trained in the various articles of trade, having had to trade while living in the camps in the pastures. Some were trained in pottery, and the women were well-skilled in making cloth, weaving, dye-making, and tailoring.

When they took stock of their available resources, they found cedar for building boats, the murex sea snail for dye of an unusual and beautiful color, and good harbors for many boats. They set out to Egypt to buy papyrus with its many uses, from paper to boat-building, as one of their own needs. What they found there was an intense interest in their cedar boats and the wood used to make them. A flourishing trade in papyrus going north and cedar going south was soon established, causing the Egyptians who began to trade with them to refer to them as the people of paper, which evolved into the name for their town to be called Byblos, from which we derive the term “Bible” and directly connected to that book. The Egyptians recognized that they had been completely decimated by Esau, yet had returned to their former prosperity, so they began to call them “Phoenix” after the bird that burns its own nest, only to have a full-fledged chick rise from the flames and replace its dying parent. This gradually devolved into the term Phoenician.

Following the pattern of the 12 fighting units of Abraham having individual commanders, each village established by the Phoenicians had its own leader and commander in war. That pattern of city-states allowed their scattered settlements to remain viable long after the land-based nations had fallen to their neighbors, and only failed when Rome united the entire Mediterranean area under one government, leaving them no place to remain free, except across the Great Sea, where they settled the coasts of Central and South America, with a few scattered settlements along the coast of North America and through what is Mexico today and into the Mississippi River watershed area. Their traces can be found along every major river on earth, fulfilling the promise to Abraham that he would be a blessing to the entire earth.

Phoenician Ships

Phoenician migrations can be partly traced by the shape of their ships. This ancient carving shows the most resilient characteristics, the horse’s head and the Papyrus stalk fish-tail. The horse represented the Phoenician kingdoms, who had originally been herders in the days of Abraham, and the papyrus stalks represented the Egyptian elements of trade. It was customary to make many of the ships that traversed the Mediterranean with double and triple hulls. There was an outside hull of tongue-and-groove cedar wood for protection from striking rocks, floating debris, and other objects that could knock holes in a reed boat. There was an inner hull of bundles of papyrus covered with pine tar for waterproofing to dramatically increase the buoyancy of the ships, then there was an inner-inner hull of cedar wood to give the floor more protection from damage by the sailors and cargo and cover the waterproofing tar, allowing the ships far longer periods of service and much greater cargo versatility. This form of ship-building was know from the days of Atlantis, which was located in the “eye of Africa” in Mauritania on the west coast of Africa. Noah used it in building the ark.

This ancient carving shows the original design of the Phoenician ships that specialized in transporting cedar wood to Egypt. Notice the rope truss from the horse’s neck to the mast, then back to the reed tail. This gives stability to the reed inner hull and keeps it from breaking in half. Also, notice the tight-fitting skull caps worn by the sailors. This is one of three cap models used extensively by the Phoenicians. The “common” working men wore this model.

This replica of a Phoenician trading vessel was built in Tyre recently. Notice the wooden beam to which the side-boards are attached and which extends up into the horse head. The “eyelets” on the side is where the oars were extended into the water. The eyelet at the front is where the rope attached to the anchor stone was positioned.


Here is the same replica after launch. notice the size of the humans. This is the model of ship that the was used to sail in the Atlantic Ocean, and which left markers from the far north to their three-year journey around the Horn of Africa, starting from the Mediterranean sea and progressing along the western coast of Africa. The cloth stretched from the mast to the “fish tail” provided protection from the fierce Mediterranean sun, where the water temperature often rises above 85 F degrees.


Reed ships can be very sophisticated as well as very beautiful. They exist in double and triple hull models, some with double decks.

This tiny model of one of the later designs shows the primitive rudder paddles. The sailor stood between the two and held one control in each hand, moving them in harmony with each other. Notice the woven reed cargo cover that also acted as a stable deck for the sailors. The anchor stone is hanging from a stanchion at the front, secured by a rope.  Other models show tear-drop shaped anchor stones with a hole drilled into the narrow end, through which a tie-rope was passed to secure the stone. There are fields littered with this model, many with crosses carved into them. Those were attached to trailing boards that held the anchor-stone far enough behind the ship such that if they were thrown toward the hull, they could not reach it. These were raised and lowered by the attached ropes so that they could be used as anchors on the bottom, or raised to the height of the boards to turn the ship upright in the event it capsized. These were the first submarines, and were called “tumblers”, a word found in the description of Noah’s ark. Light was provided by embedding clear semi-precious gem stones in the deck of the ship in the same manner as used in construction of the Yankee Clippers, and windows that could be closed tightly during storms.

When the Roman conquered Carthage, they took all the captured ships back to the Roman ports, took them apart board by board, and copied them board by board to make their own fleet. All the Phoenician ships had eyes painted on their bow, which the Romans copied faithfully. This particular model is a late-date war ship with a boarding ramp, three rows of oars, and a ram designed to knock holes into opposing ships. The ram and the hull of each Phoenician ship was usually covered in copper sheeting to defend against damage from these rams.

Here is another model of war ship, this one with two masts and a “Master’s” cabin on the very back of the ship. Neither of these models show the star-board which was attached to the right side of the front so that the navigator could get a more accurate reading of the stars on the horizon. These earlier model provided space inside the ship just back of the horse’s head for the navigator to take his readings.

This head from a wheeled cross in Ireland is a stone grave marker for a Phoenician sea captain. The working model with its weighted free-spinning wheel that always pointing toward earth was made of wood with a hub in the middle, tiny wheels surrounding the hub to keep it seated properly, and medium-sized wheels on the end of each arm. Notice the “bumps” that marked specific degrees on the wheel itself, plus the marker for exact 90-degree readings on the arms. There were several models of these wheeled crosses, some made of the tender branches of trees, such as willow, and others with a stick that marked off the degrees on the staff to which it was attached. See Walter Critenden’s web site for a full explanation of how these wheeled crosses were made and used.

The sea-faring population of Carthage fled to Portugal before the Romans made their final assault. This “Spanish” sombrero is actually a product of the Portuguese sailors who transferred the wheeled cross to this model hat. This is a very old device, as the king’s crowns were originally devices that they could take off, place on the ground, and read the sun like a book. Notice first the 52 markers around the edge, one for each week of the year. Next the markers of degrees on the wheeled cross in the form if the six white pointers and six fans, for a total of 12 months in the year. The six gold threads on the crown represent the equinoxes and solstices at the location of both the rising and setting sun. The band around the crown marks which item on the brim represents which interpretation to use in its reading. This is one of several sombreros seen in a Mexican-themed restaurant in California, the home of many Mexican-Spanish-Portuguese communities that still maintain the ancient traditions.

This representation of the wheeled cross on the costume of a Cambodian ritual dancer displays the customary three sections of the stem of the wheeled cross with the lower two cut-outs, with the head representing the hub. This clearly shows a lack of understanding of the purpose of the tool, and how it works, although it serves to show deep respect for those who introduced it to their culture.

This coin struck by the Phoenicians shows a war ship with two rows of oars, a ram up front and soldiers with their round shields. These shields were mounted on the side during voyages, then taken in when battle was inevitable. Notice the steering oar attached to the rear of the ship. The rudder is a reasonably recent invention.


This is one page of a two-page graphic of the Makah Native American tribe in the very far northern part of the west coast of the United States in their whaling canoes. Look carefully at the canoes. The “round things” inside the canoe and on the whale carcass are skins of sea animals that have been made into air bags to keep the whale carcass from sinking. They are the tan “things” in the following second page of the graphic.

This is the second page of that same magazine article graphic, with the horse head clearly visible on at least two of the canoes. This tribe has never seen a horse, nor are they familiar with the animals. Now look at the back of their canoes, at the spreading bundle of rushes that have been flattened into a deck in this wooden model. These natives have no idea what a papyrus reed is. The only way this completely identical structure could have come into being was to have an original to copy. These same natives also have larger, ocean-going versions of the same architecture.

Phoenician Priest’s Hats

The next Phoenician identifier is the head-gear of their priests.

The “average” Phoenician wore a skull cap. Their kings and princes wore extended caps with the number of folds indicating their status. The kings had five folds in their caps, identical to the number of tiers in the hats of the rulers of the Anunnaki (giants) of the Middle East. Their priests wore “beanies”.

This ancient carving shows a priest leading five Phoenician kings into an audience with an unknown entity. Notice the shapes of their hats, particularly the priest, as this model can be found in the most remote places on earth.

Street dancers in Indonesia wearing priestly beanies with the wheeled cross markings built into them, celebrating a local festival.

A priest in an African village leading a local ceremony. None of the other dancers are permitted to wear this model of head covering.

This Native American chief from the Modoc tribe near Mt. Shasta on the west coast of the United States has added the local insignia of his accomplishments that elevated him to the level of chief of the tribe. The other males in the tribe use eagle feathers in their hair to display their seniority.

The simplicity and elegance of this beanie has never gone out of style. Jacqueline Kennedy, First Lady (wife of President John Kennedy of the U.S.) also favored this style.


There are many other indicators, if one is sensitive to the more subtle influences, such as the famed beauty of the women in Kashmir, reflecting the beauty of Sarah that got Abraham in trouble with the Pharaoh of Egypt, or the body build and facial features of the Uighurs in Xinjiang, China, clearly not of pure Oriental stock, and backed up by the increasing persecution, which is specific to only the Jews and Lost 10 Tribes of Israel, in this case, one of the tribe of Joseph who chose to migrate on the Silk Road to escape the invading armies into Israel, which had merged with the Phoenicians since the Exodus from Egypt (you be the judge as to whether this assessment is correct, and whether it can be proven or not). The origin of their current persecution is their typically Israelite stubbornness in refusing to abandon their Islamic religion and tribal form of government.


Remember that one of the Phoenician’s primary articles of trade was carved ivory. The palace of the king of the 10 northern tribes after Solomon’s death was rich with these carvings, that Jezebel was the daughter of the king of Tyre, and Jezebel’s daughter, Athaliah, was married to the king of Judah and murdered all the sons of her husband after his death, except one that was hidden in the temple precincts as a baby, and that the Temple of Solomon was built by Phoenician architects and not listed as a replica of the Tabernacle in the Wilderness, but as a temple to Chuon, one of the Philistine gods (giants), which the prophets of the Great I AM of Moses harshly criticizes. Considering that both the northern and southern kingdoms were sent into exile for idolatry and abandoning the Great I AM. This affiliation would be well worth looking into.